almond butter Notes: Almond butter is grittier and more expensive than peanut butter, but it can substitute for peanut butter in many recipes. To make your own: Process two cups of blanched and toasted whole almonds in a food processor for a few minutes, add up to one teaspoon of salt, then process for a few minutes more. Yields a bit more than one cup. Substitutes: peanut butter OR cashew butter
almond paste Notes: This is a paste made with finely ground blanched almonds, sugar, glycerin, and sometimes almond extract. Bakers use it to make cakes and cookies. Bitter almond paste is flavored with oil of bitter almonds, and is worth seeking out if you plan to make amaretti. Look for tubes or cans of it among the baking supplies at your supermarket. Substitutes: marzipan (sweeter and more pliable than almond paste)
almond filling Notes: This sweet filling is used to make pastries and cakes.
candied chestnuts = marrons glacés Notes: A French specialty, these are whole chestnuts that are candied in a sugar syrup. They're used to make various desserts. Substitutes: chestnut cream
cashew butter Notes: This is an interesting alternative to peanut butter, though it's a bit pricey. To make your own: Blend in food processor two cups roasted cashews plus one to two tablespoons vegetable oil. Store it in the refrigerator. Substitutes: peanut butter OR almond butter
chestnut cream = crème de marron Notes: This is made with puréed chestnuts, brown sugar, and vanilla. It's used as an ingredient in several desserts, including Mont Blanc. Refrigerate after opening.
chestnut purée = chestnut puree = purée de marron Notes: Europeans use this to make everything from soups to stuffings to desserts. You can buy it either sweetened or unsweetened. If you're not sure which one your recipe is calling for, get unsweetened purée and add sugar later if needed. To make your own: Simmer shelled and peeled chestnuts in milk or water over low heat for an hour (adding more liquid as necessary), then purée and press through a sieve.
hazelnut butter Notes: This is similar to peanut butter, only it's made with roasted hazelnuts. To make your own: Combine one cup roasted and skinned hazelnuts and one or two tablespoons vegetable oil and salt and sugar to taste in a food processor or blender and mix until it has a spreadable consistency. Substitutes: chocolate-hazelnut spread
hazelnut paste = pasta nocciola Notes: This is used as a filling in candies and baked goods. Look for it in specialty shops or Middle Eastern markets. To make your own: Coarsely chop one pound roasted hazelnuts. In a food processor or blender, finely grind about 1/3 of the nuts at a time, until mealy. Add egg whites from 3 large eggs, 2 cups powdered sugar and 2 teaspoons hazelnut liqueur. Blend until paste forms. Wrap and store in a covered container, up to 2 weeks. Makes 2-3 cups. Recipe courtesy of the Oregon Hazelnut Commission, and reprinted with their permission. Substitutes: chocolate-hazelnut spread
marzipan = marchpane = almond modeling paste Pronunciation: MAHR-zuh-pan Notes: Marzipan is made from ground almonds and sugar, and it's used to make colorful and edible decorations and confections. Look for tubes or cans of it among the baking supplies in your supermarket. To make your own: Knead together 8 ounces of almond paste, one egg white, one tablespoon light corn syrup, and a few drops of flavoring extract. Gradually add in 3 cups powdered sugar until the marzipan can be easily worked.
nut butter = nut spread Notes: If you mix roasted nuts, vegetable oil, salt, and maybe some sugar in a blender or food processor for awhile, you'll get a smooth, spreadable paste called nut butter. Nut butters can be spread on bread or crackers, blended into savory sauces, or teamed up with chocolate to make desserts. Substitutes: hummus (as a spread) OR cream cheese (as a spread)
peanut butter = peanut paste Notes: High in protein and low in cost, peanut butter is a sandwich staple. It's often teamed with jelly, but honey, bananas, onions, and even pickles work well too. Natural peanut butter is made simply of peanuts, oil, and sometimes salt. It's not very popular with consumers, though, since it needs to be refrigerated after opening, and the oil tends to separate and rise to the top. Most shoppers turn instead to commercial peanut butters, which don't need to be refrigerated and don't separate. Unfortunately, these products are made with hydrogenated oils, which are bad for you. Since many people are allergic to peanuts, it's important to alert guests if you're serving something that's made with peanut butter. To make your own: Blend in food processor two cups roasted peanuts plus one to two tablespoons peanut oil. Store it in the refrigerator. Substitutes: cashew butter OR almond butter OR sesame paste (in savory Asian dishes) OR hummus OR chocolate-hazelnut spread
poppy seed filling Notes: Eastern European cooks like to put this into their pastries and cakes.
praline paste = praliné Notes: This paste is made with almond or hazelnut butter and sugar, and it's used to make candy and other desserts. It's hard to make yourself, since homemade nut butters tend to be gritty. Unfortunately, it's also hard to find commercially prepared praline paste, though you can order it online at www.kingarthurflour.com. The oil sometimes separates and rises to the top, so stir before using. Substitutes: chestnut puree OR chopped nuts
sesame butter Notes: This is a paste made from toasted black (i.e., unhulled) sesame seeds. It's similar to sesame paste, but thicker and darker. Once you've opened it, store it in the refrigerator unless you plan to use it up within a week or so. To make your own: In a blender, mix toasted, unhulled sesame seeds with a small amount of peanut oil (or other oil) until creamy Substitutes: sesame paste (thinner) OR 3 parts creamy peanut butter + 1 part sesame oil OR peanut butter
sesame paste = sesame seed paste = tahini = tahina Pronunciation: tuh-HEE-nee Notes: This is a paste made from ordinary white sesame seeds. It's used in the Middle East to make hummus, baba ghanouj, and sauces. The oil tends to rise to the top, so stir before using. Once you've opened it, store it in the refrigerator unless you plan to use it up within a week or so. To make your own: In a blender, mix white sesame seeds with a small amount of peanut oil (or other oil) until creamy Substitutes: sesame butter (thicker) OR 3 parts creamy peanut butter + 1 part sesame oil OR toasted sesame seeds (for hummus) OR toasted sesame oil (for hummus) OR peanut butter (for sauces)
sesame seed paste
sunflower butter Substitutes: sesame seed paste
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden