brown sugar See light brown sugar or dark brown sugar Substitutes: brown sugar substitute
Chinese sugar = Chinese rock sugar = rock sugar Notes: This includes yellow rock sugar = yellow lump sugar (pictured) or clear rock sugar. Substitutes: granulated sugar (sweeter; substitute 1 tablespoon for each Chinese sugar crystal)
cinnamon sugar To make your own: Mix together 7 parts granulated sugar and 1 part cinnamon.
custard powder Notes: Bird's is a popular brand. Look for this in British specialty markets. Substitutes: instant vanilla pudding mix (Substitute measure for measure) dark brown sugar (1 C = 6 ounces) Substitutes: 1 C light brown sugar + 1 tablespoon molasses OR 1 C granulated sugar + 2 tablespoons molasses
date sugar = dehydrated date pieces Substitutes: granulated sugar (not as nutritious)
dehydrated date pieces
dehydrated sugar cane juice
demerara sugar = demerera sugar Substitutes: turbinado sugar OR granulated sugar OR light brown sugar
doughnut sugar = snow sugar = non-melting sugar Notes: This is similar to powdered sugar, only it doesn't melt as easily. Commercial bakers use this on doughnuts and other pastries.
extra-fine granulated sugar
fine granulated sugar
fructose = granulated fructose = fruit sugar = levulose Pronunciation: FROOK-tose Notes: A teaspoon of granulated fructose has about the same number of calories as a teaspoon of granulated sugar, but fructose is roughly twice as sweet. Many diabetics use it since it doesn't affect their blood sugar as dramatically as granulated sugar. Look for it among the dietary foods or among the sugars in your supermarket. Substitutes: honey (not as sweet) OR granulated sugar (sugar isn't as sweet as fructose--use 3 parts sugar to replace 2 parts fructose; sugar makes product drier and lighter)
golden brown sugar See light brown sugar.
Equivalents: 1 pound = 2 1/3 Cups
Varieties: Regular sugar = fine granulated sugar = table sugar = standard granulated sugar = extra-fine granulated sugar is the standard table sugar we're all familiar with. Superfine sugar = ultrafine sugar = bar sugar = instant dissolving sugar = berry sugar = castor sugar = caster sugar dissolves more quickly, and is recommended for sweetening beverages, and for making meringues, cakes, soufflés, and mousses. To make your own, grind standard granulated sugar in a food processor or blender for about a minute. Baker's special has a grain size between standard granulated and superfine. Bakers use it in cakes because the fine granules improve the texture. Sanding sugar has larger granules that sparkle when spinkled on baked goods and candies. Coarse sugar has a larger grain size than regular granulated sugar. It tends not to change color or break down at high temperatures. It's similar to (and often mistaken for) sanding sugar. colored sugar Beet sugar is derived from sugar beets, while cane sugar is derived from sugar cane. Both beet and cane sugars are 99.95% sucrose, but many bakers claim that the remaining .05% of trace minerals and proteins makes a difference, and that cane sugar performs better. Some cane sugar is processed using a by-product of animal bones, so some vegetarians prefer beet sugar to cane. Some manufacturers don't specify whether their product is beet sugar or cane sugar.
- reduce (Up to one-third of the sugar in most recipes can be eliminated without replacement This will reduce calories in a recipe, but the flavor will be less sweet; cakes and quick breads will be paler, tougher, and drier; cookies will be tougher, paler, and smaller. Reducing sugar in yeast breads makes loaves less tender, less moist, and less brown. Don't reduce sugar when making pickles--sugar might play a role in retarding spoilage. Reducing sugar in ice cream will give it a coarser texture. Don't reduce sugar when making candy) OR
- turbinado sugar (Substitute one cup turbinado sugar for each cup granulated sugar.) OR
- date sugar (Substitute one cup date sugar for each cup granulated sugar.) OR
- Sucanat (Substitute one cup sucanat for each cup granulated sugar.) OR
- light brown sugar (Substitute one cup firmly packed brown sugar for every cup of granulated sugar. This substitution affects the texture and reduces the volume of baked goods; for example, it makes cookies darker and chewier. Don't make this substitution in white or sponge cakes.) OR
- honey (Warning: Don't feed honey to babies who are less than one year old--it may cause infant botulism. Substitute 3/4 cup honey for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup and add 1/4 teaspoon baking soda (to neutralized the acid in the honey). Reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees--substituting honey for sugar alters the flavor and tends to make baked goods moister, chewier and darker.) OR
- fructose (Fructose sometimes doesn't work well in recipes for baked goods. If you wish to experiment, substitute 2/3 cup granulated fructose for every cup of granulated sugar. Baking with fructose tends to make baked goods moister and darker.) OR
- artificial sweeteners (For equivalencies, visit the Illinois Cooperative Extension Service's Sugar Substitutes Table of Equivalency page.)
- powdered milk (Substitute up to 1/4 of the granulated sugar in the recipe with powdered milk.) OR
- maple syrup (Substitute 3/4 cup maple syrup plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda for each cup of granulated sugar, and reduce another liquid in the recipe by 3 tablespoons.) OR
maple sugar OR
- barley malt syrup (Substitute 3/4 cup barley malt syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.) OR
- powdered sugar (Substitute 1 3/4 cup packed powdered sugar for each cup of granulated sugar called for in recipe. This substitution tends to make cookies less crispy.) OR
- corn syrup (Don't replace more than half of sugar in any recipe with corn syrup. Substitute 1 1/2 cups corn syrup for each cup granulated sugar, since corn syrup isn't as sweet as sugar, then reduce a liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup. Will affect appearance and flavor slightly.) OR
- rice syrup (Substitute 1 3/4 cup rice syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.) OR
- molasses (Substitute 1 1/3 cup molasses plus 1 teaspoon baking soda for one cup of granulated sugar, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/3 cup and reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees. This substitution will impart a strong molasses flavor to the product. Replace no more than half of the sugar in the recipe with molasses.)
In hot cereals:
- brown sugar OR
- maple syrup OR
- maple sugar OR
- brown rice syrup (Substitute 1 cup rice syrup for every cup of white granulated sugar) OR
- barley malt syrup OR
- molasses OR
- fruit juice (Use fruit juice concentrates for greater sweetening power.) OR
- rice syrup (Substitute 1 3/4 cup rice syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)
Links: For tips on how to reduce sugar in recipes, visit Preparing Healthy Food: How to Modify a Recipe. See also the Sweeteners for Vegans posting on RecipeSource.com, and the North Dakota State University Extension Service's Sweetener Substitutions page. For tips on cooking and baking with artificial sweeteners, visit Sweet'n Low's FAQ page.
granulated sugar cane juice
instant dissolving sugar
invert sugar Notes: This is used by commercial bakers to keep baked goods moist or by candy makers to make more finely grained candies. Look for it in candy making supply shops.
jaggery Pronunciation: JAG-uh-ree Notes: This is a tan, unrefined sugar that is common in India. It's made from the sap of palm trees or sugar cane and is much more flavorful than granulated sugar. It's often sold in solid cakes, but it should crumble when you squeeze it. Look for it in Indian markets. Substitutes: Mix 1 C dark brown sugar + 2 teaspoons molasses OR palm sugar OR piloncillo OR brown sugar OR maple sugar OR date sugar
jus de canne
light brown sugar = golden brown sugar (1C = 6 ounces) Substitutes: 2/3 C dark brown sugar + 1/3 C granulated sugar OR turbinado sugar
malt Notes: This mild sweetener is sold as a syrup or powder. Diastatis malt is used by bread makers to feed the yeast and improve the texture. Nondiastatic malt is used in bread as a flavoring and preservative.
maple sugar = maple sprinkles Notes: This is made from maple syrup which has been dried and granulated. It's often sprinkled on cereal and toast. Substitutes: date sugar = granulated sugar OR sucanat
marshmallow Equivalents: Ten large marshmallows = 1 C miniature marshmallows. To make your own: See the Marshmallows recipe posted on Recipesource.com. Substitutes: marshmallow creme (moister and sweeter) OR whipped cream (as topping on hot chocolate) marshmallow creme = marshmallow fluff Shopping hints: Kraft is a well-known brand. To make your own: Gently heat 16 ounces of marshmallows plus 1/4 cup corn syrup in a double boiler, stirring constantly. misri Notes: Look for bags of these sugar crystals in Indian markets.
muscovado sugar Substitutes: dark brown sugar
palm sugar = coconut sugar = Java sugar Notes: Look for this is Indian or Asian markets. It should crumble when you squeeze it. Substitutes: Mix 1 C dark brown sugar + 2 teaspoons molasses OR jaggery OR piloncillo OR brown sugar OR maple sugar OR date sugar
piloncillo = panela = panocha Shopping hints: Look for cones of this in Mexican markets. Substitutes: Combine 1 C dark brown sugar with 2 tablespoons molasses (very close substitute)
powdered sugar = confectioner's sugar = icing sugar Substitutes: Mix 1 cup granulated sugar + 1 tablespoon corn starch in blender until powdery, stirring often OR (to sweeten whipped cream) artificial sweeteners (add after cream is completely whipped) Links: See also Powdered Sugar Replacement page for diabetics, and the Powdered Sugar Replacement page on www.vegweb.com.
raw sugar Substitutes: turbinado sugar
standard granulated sugar
sucanat = unrefined natural sugar = granulated sugar cane juice = dehydrated sugar cane juice Substitutes: granulated sugar (fewer nutrients) OR brown sugar OR turbinado sugar
sugar cane Notes: These are fun to chew on. They're available in the produce section either peeled (left) or unpeeled.
turbinado sugar Substitutes: demerara sugar OR light brown sugar OR raw sugar
unrefined natural sugar
vanilla sugar To make your own: Put a vanilla bean in a pound of granulated sugar for a week.
zucker hut = zuckerhut = sugar hat Notes: Look for this in German markets. During the Christmas and New Year's holidays, Germans pour rum over the cones and ignite them to make feuerzangebowle, or fire tong punch.
For information on using sweeteners in baked goods, visit the Functions of Baking Ingredients page, or the North Dakota State University's page on Sweetener Substitutions. See also the Table of Equivalents for Sugar Substitutes posted on SOAR.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden