Sugars

Sugars
Varieties: Regular sugar = fine granulated sugar = table sugar = standard granulated sugar = extra-fine granulated sugar is the standard table sugar we're all familiar with. Superfine sugar = ultrafine sugar = bar sugar = instant dissolving sugar = berry sugar = castor sugar = caster sugar dissolves more quickly, and is recommended for sweetening beverages, and for making meringues, cakes, soufflés, and mousses. To make your own, grind standard granulated sugar in a food processor or blender for about a minute. Baker's special has a grain size between standard granulated and superfine. Bakers use it in cakes because the fine granules improve the texture. Sanding sugar has larger granules that sparkle when spinkled on baked goods and candies. Coarse sugar has a larger grain size than regular granulated sugar. It tends not to change color or break down at high temperatures. It's similar to (and often mistaken for) sanding sugar. colored sugar Beet sugar is derived from sugar beets, while cane sugar is derived from sugar cane. Both beet and cane sugars are 99.95% sucrose, but many bakers claim that the remaining .05% of trace minerals and proteins makes a difference, and that cane sugar performs better. Some cane sugar is processed using a by-product of animal bones, so some vegetarians prefer beet sugar to cane. Some manufacturers don't specify whether their product is beet sugar or cane sugar. Substitutes: all-purpose: reduce (Up to one-third of the sugar in most recipes can be eliminated without replacement This will reduce calories in a recipe, but the flavor will be less sweet; cakes and quick breads will be paler, tougher, and drier; cookies will be tougher, paler, and smaller. Reducing sugar in yeast breads makes loaves less tender, less moist, and less brown. Don't reduce sugar when making pickles--sugar might play a role in retarding spoilage. Reducing sugar in ice cream will give it a coarser texture. Don't reduce sugar when making candy) OR turbinado sugar (Substitute one cup turbinado sugar for each cup granulated sugar.) OR date sugar (Substitute one cup date sugar for each cup granulated sugar.) OR Sucanat (Substitute one cup sucanat for each cup granulated sugar.) OR light brown sugar (Substitute one cup firmly packed brown sugar for every cup of granulated sugar. This substitution affects the texture and reduces the volume of baked goods; for example, it makes cookies darker and chewier. Don't make this substitution in white or sponge cakes.) OR honey (Warning: Don't feed honey to babies who are less than one year old--it may cause infant botulism. Substitute 3/4 cup honey for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup and add 1/4 teaspoon baking soda (to neutralized the acid in the honey). Reduce oven temperature by 25 degrees--substituting honey for sugar alters the flavor and tends to make baked goods moister, chewier and darker.) OR fructose (Fructose sometimes doesn't work well in recipes for baked goods. If you wish to experiment, substitute 2/3 cup granulated fructose for every cup of granulated sugar. Baking with fructose tends to make baked goods moister and darker.) OR artificial sweeteners (For equivalencies, visit the Illinois Cooperative Extension Service's Sugar Substitutes Table of Equivalency page.) for baking: powdered milk (Substitute up to 1/4 of the granulated sugar in the recipe with powdered milk.) OR maple syrup (Substitute 3/4 cup maple syrup plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda for each cup of granulated sugar, and reduce another liquid in the recipe by 3 tablespoons.) OR maple sugar OR barley malt syrup (Substitute 3/4 cup barley malt syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.) OR powdered sugar (Substitute 1 3/4 cup packed powdered sugar for each cup of granulated sugar called for in recipe. This substitution tends to make cookies less crispy.) OR corn syrup (Don't replace more than half of sugar in any recipe with corn syrup. Substitute 1 1/2 cups corn syrup for each cup granulated sugar, since corn syrup isn't as sweet as sugar, then reduce a liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup. Will affect appearance and flavor slightly.) OR rice syrup (Substitute 1 3/4 cup rice syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.) OR molasses (Substitute 1 1/3 cup molasses plus 1 teaspoon baking soda for one cup of granulated sugar, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/3 cup and reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees. This substitution will impart a strong molasses flavor to the product. Replace no more than half of the sugar in the recipe with molasses.) In hot cereals: brown sugar OR maple syrup OR maple sugar OR brown rice syrup (Substitute 1 cup rice syrup for every cup of white granulated sugar) OR barley malt syrup OR molasses OR fruit juice (Use fruit juice concentrates for greater sweetening power.) OR rice syrup (Substitute 1 3/4 cup rice syrup for each cup of granulated syrup called for in recipe, then reduce another liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)
acesulfame K
An artifical sweetner. Popular brands are Sunett and Sweet One.
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advantame
An artifical sweetner.
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aspartame
An artifical sweetner. Popular brands are Equal and Nutrasweet.
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chinese sugar
chinese sugar
This includes yellow rock sugar = yellow lump sugar (pictured) or clear rock sugar.
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custard powder
custard powder
Bird's is a popular brand. Look for this in British specialty markets.
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doughnut sugar
This is similar to powdered sugar, only it doesn't melt as easily. Commercial bakers use this on doughnuts and other pastries.
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fructose
fructose
A teaspoon of granulated fructose has about the same number of calories as a teaspoon of granulated sugar, but fructose is roughly twice as sweet. Many diabetics use it since it doesn't affect their blood sugar as dramatically as granulated sugar. Look for it among the dietary foods or among the sugars in your supermarket.
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invert sugar
invert sugar
This is used by commercial bakers to keep baked goods moist or by candy makers to make more finely grained candies. Look for it in candy making supply shops.
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jaggery
jaggery
This is a tan, unrefined sugar that is common in India. It's made from the sap of palm trees or sugar cane and is much more flavorful than granulated sugar. It's often sold in solid cakes, but it should crumble when you squeeze it. Look for it in Indian markets.
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malt
malt
This mild sweetener is sold as a syrup or powder. Diastatis malt is used by bread makers to feed the yeast and improve the texture. Nondiastatic malt is used in bread as a flavoring and preservative.
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malt sugar
malt sugar
Look for this in Asian markets.
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maple sugar
maple sugar
This is made from maple syrup which has been dried and granulated. It's often sprinkled on cereal and toast.
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marshmallow
marshmallow
See the Marshmallows recipe posted on Recipesource.com.
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marshmallow crème
marshmallow crème
Kraft is a well-known brand.
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misri
misri
Look for bags of these sugar crystals in Indian markets.
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Neotame
An artifical sweetner. A popular brand is Newtame.
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palm sugar
palm sugar
Look for this is Indian or Asian markets. It should crumble when you squeeze it.
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piloncillo
piloncillo
Look for cones of this in Mexican markets.
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powdered sugar
powdered sugar
See also Powdered Sugar Replacement page for diabetics, and the Powdered Sugar Replacement page on www.vegweb.com.
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saccarin
An artifical sweetner. Popular brands are Sweet 'N Low and Sweet Twin.
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sucanat
sucanat
This is pure dried sugar cane juice. The dark color is due to the retention of molasses.
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sucralose
An artifical sweetner. A popular brand is Splenda.
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sugar
sugar
Varieties: By crystal size: Regular sugar = fine granulated sugar = table sugar = standard granulated sugar = extra-fine granulated sugar is the standard table sugar we're all familiar with. Superfine sugar = ultrafine sugar = bar sugar = instant dissolving sugar = berry sugar = castor sugar = caster sugar dissolves more quickly, and is recommended for sweetening beverages, and for making meringues, cakes, soufflés, and mousses. To make your own, grind standard granulated sugar in a food processor or blender for about a minute. Baker's special has a grain size between standard granulated and superfine. Bakers use it in cakes because the fine granules improve the texture. Sanding sugar has larger granules that sparkle when sprinkled on baked goods and candies. Coarse sugar has a larger grain size than regular granulated sugar. It tends not to change color or break down at high temperatures. It's similar to (and often mistaken for) sanding sugar. By source: Beet sugar is derived from sugar beets, while cane sugar is derived from sugar cane. Both beet and cane sugars are 99.95% sucrose, but many bakers claim that the remaining .05% of trace minerals and proteins makes a difference, and that cane sugar performs better. Some cane sugar is processed using a by-product of animal bones, so some vegetarians prefer beet sugar to cane. Some manufacturers don't specify whether their product is beet sugar or cane sugar.
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sugar cane
sugar cane
These are fun to chew on. They're available in the produce section either peeled (left) or unpeeled.
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sweetners, artifical
This includes: Acesulfame K, Advantame, Aspartame, Saccharin and Sucralose.
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zucker hut
zucker hut
Look for this in German markets. During the Christmas and New Year's holidays, Germans pour rum over the cones and ignite them to make feuerzangebowle, or fire tong punch.
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