Wheat Flours

Wheat Flours
Wheat flour Includes: (from hardest to softest flours) durum wheat flour and semolina flour (typically used for making pastas), whole wheat flour and graham flour (typically mixed with all-purpose or bread flour to make bread or baked goods), bread flour (typically used for making yeast breads), all-purpose flour (can be used for breads and baked goods), pastry flour (typically used for pastries), and cake flour (typically used for cakes).
all-purpose flour, all purpose flour, flour, plain flour
all-purpose flour
Bleached and unbleached versions of all-purpose flour can be used interchangeably, though bleached flour is whiter and has less vitamin E than unbleached.
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biscuit mix
Use this mix to make biscuits as well as pancakes and other baked goods. Bisquick is a well-known brand. To make biscuits from biscuit mix, combine 2 parts biscuit mix with 1 part water, roll out on floured surface, cut into biscuits, and bake for about 10 minutes at 425º.
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bread flour, hard-wheat flour, high-gluten flour, strong flour
bread flour
This flour has a high level of gluten, which gives bread more structure. Don't confuse it with gluten flour (also called vital wheat gluten), which is pure gluten and used as a bread additive or to make seitan. To see how to substitute other flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.
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cake flour, soft-wheat flour
cake flour
Includes: self-rising cake flour These substitutions will perform better if you also do this: (1) Mix the batter as little as possible. (2) Separate eggs, beat the whites, and fold them into the batter.
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durum wheat flour
durum wheat flour
Semolina is made from durum wheat.
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farina, sooji
farina
Cream of Wheat is a popular brand.
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gluten flour, instant gluten flour, pure gluten flour, vital wheat gluten
gluten flour
This is flour with the starch and bran removed. Don't confuse it with bread flour = high-gluten flour, which is gluten-fortified flour, or with gluten = seitan, a meat analogue used in vegetarian dishes. Pure gluten flour is usually added to regular flour to turn it into bread flour, or it's used to make seitan.
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pastry flour
pastry flour
Look for this in health food stores and specialty shops.
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self-rising flour
This is more commonly used in the South than in the North.
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semolina
semolina
Semolina is made mostly with durum wheat.
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wheat flour
wheat flour
Includes: (from hardest to softest flours) durum wheat flour and semolina flour (typically used for making pastas), whole wheat flour and graham flour (typically mixed with all-purpose or bread flour to make bread or baked goods), bread flour (typically used for making yeast breads), all-purpose flour (can be used for breads and baked goods), pastry flour (typically used for pastries), and cake flour (typically used for cakes). Substitutions: See the all-purpose flour listing.
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