Milk & Cream

Milk & Cream


clotted cream
clotted cream
See the Making Your Own Devonshire or Clotted Cream or Mock Devonshire Clotted Cream postings on RecipeSource.com.
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cream
cream
Creams vary according to the amount of butterfat they have. Lightest of all is half & half, which is half milk, half cream and weighs in with a butterfat content between 10.5 - 18%. It can't be whipped, but it's nice with coffee, or on cereal. Light cream = coffee cream = table cream is richer at 18 - 30% fat, but it still can't be whipped. Light whipping cream = whipping cream (with a butterfat content of 30 - 36%) and heavy cream = heavy whipping cream (with at least 36% fat) are heavy enough to whip, and aren't as prone as lower-fat creams to curdling in sauces. The higher the butterfat content, the less beating is required to get whipped cream. Europeans go for even heavier creams, like double cream (with a butterfat content of 42%), extra-thick double cream, and clotted cream = Devonshire cream, which is often spread like butter over scones. Look for clotted cream in large supermarkets, but (perhaps luckily) the double creams are very hard to find. You can buy ultra-pasteurized versions of these creams, but they tend to have a burnt milk taste and don't whip as well.
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double cream (42% fat)
double cream (42% fat)
This isn't available in the United States.
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evaporated milk
evaporated milk
This is sold in cans, and comes either whole or nonfat. Don't confuse it with sweetened condensed milk, which has lots of sugar and is not a good substitute. While evaporated milk is sometimes called condensed milk, most recipes that call for condensed milk are referring to sweetened condensed milk. Evaporated milk is sold with varying amounts of butterfat, ranging from whole evaporated milk with about 8% to skim evaporated milk with about 0.5%. To reconstitute evaporated milk, combine it with an equal amount of water.
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goat's milk
goat's milk
This comes with varying percentages of butterfat. You can buy it fresh, or as powdered milk, canned evaporated milk, or UHT milk packed in aseptic containers. Fresh is best for drinking and delicate desserts, the other kinds pick up an unpleasant caramelized flavor when they're heated for packaging.
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half-and-half
half-and-half
(10.5 - 18% fat)
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heavy cream
heavy cream
at least 36% fat. Unlike heavy cream, lower-fat substitutes like half-and-half and evaporated milk tend to "break" or curdle when added to sauces. To prevent this from happening, heat the sauce over low or medium heat, or reduce the cream substitute before adding it to the sauce. Don't let the sauce boil. Cream sauces made with lower-fat cream substitutes also tend to have less body; to correct for that, consider adding 1 tablespoon flour or 2 teaspoons cornstarch to the sauce for every cup of evaporated milk substituted. Stir the thickener into a paste first to prevent lumps. Ultra-pasteurized whipping cream is harder to whip and has some unpleasant flavor notes.
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light cream
light cream
18 - 30% fat Unlike heavy cream, lower-fat substitutes like light cream, half-and-half, and evaporated milk tend to "break" or curdle when added to sauces. To prevent this from happening, heat the sauce over low or medium heat, or reduce the cream substitute before adding it to the sauce. Don't let the sauce boil. Cream sauces made with lower-fat cream substitutes also tend to have less body; to correct for that, consider adding 1 tablespoon flour or 2 teaspoons cornstarch to the sauce for every cup of evaporated milk substituted. Stir the thickener into a paste first to prevent lumps.
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light whipping cream
light whipping cream
30 - 36% fat Unlike heavy cream or whipping cream, lower-fat substitutes like half-and-half and evaporated milk tend to "break" or curdle when added to sauces. To prevent this from happening, heat the sauce over low or medium heat, or reduce the cream substitute before adding it to the sauce. Don't let the sauce boil. Cream sauces made with lower-fat cream substitutes also tend to have less body; to correct for that, consider adding 1 tablespoon flour or 2 teaspoons cornstarch to the sauce for every cup of evaporated milk substituted. Stir the thickener into a paste first to prevent lumps.
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milk 0.5%, nonfat
milk 0.5%, nonfat
Nonfat milk (0.5% fat). You can buy it fresh, or as powdered milk, canned evaporated milk, or UHT milk packed in aseptic containers. Fresh is best for drinking and delicate desserts, the other kinds pick up an unpleasant caramelized flavor when they're heated for packaging. Acidophilus milk tastes much the same as ordinary milk, but it includes the beneficial acidophilus bacteria that are destroyed during pasteurization.
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milk 2%, Low-fat
milk 2%, Low-fat
Low-fat milk (2% fat). You can buy it fresh, or as powdered milk, canned evaporated milk, or UHT milk packed in aseptic containers. Fresh is best for drinking and delicate desserts, the other kinds pick up an unpleasant caramelized flavor when they're heated for packaging. Acidophilus milk tastes much the same as ordinary milk, but it includes the beneficial acidophilus bacteria that are destroyed during pasteurization.
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milk 3.5%
milk 3.5%
Varieties: skim milk = nonfat milk (0.5% fat), low-fat milk (2% fat), and whole milk (3.5% fat). You can buy it fresh, or as powdered milk, canned evaporated milk, or UHT milk packed in aseptic containers. Fresh is best for drinking and delicate desserts, the other kinds pick up an unpleasant caramelized flavor when they're heated for packaging. Acidophilus milk tastes much the same as ordinary milk, but it includes the beneficial acidophilus bacteria that are destroyed during pasteurization.
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milk, sweetened condensed
milk, sweetened condensed
Visit the Illinois Cooperative Extension Service's Sweetened Condensed Milk--Homemade page.
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milnot
This is easier to find in Great Britain than in the United States.
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powdered milk
powdered milk
To reconstitute, combine one part milk powder with three parts water.
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raw milk
raw milk
A few decades ago, the cream in milk would rise to the top and a glass of milk sitting on the counter would gradually turn sour. No more. Most commercial milk today is homogenized so that the fat is broken into small particles which remain suspended in the milk, and pasteurized to kill bacteria, including the friendly varieties that gave milk a sour tang. Raw milk isn't pasteurized; producers instead keep their cows and dairies clean in order to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Some people insist raw milk is more healthful than commercial milk since it contains active enzymes that help with digestion and absorption of nutrients. Many cheesemakers prefer it since pasteurization diminishes the cheese's flavor potential and homogenization gives it a waxy texture. Unfortunately, it's illegal to sell raw milk in many states.
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